Poster Abstracts

Please find below a list of abstracts for which posters will be presented during LCIC 2018. Posters will be displayed during the entire conference and poster presenters will have the chance to present their posters during the poster session on the second day of the conference ahead of the Gala Dinner. Click on the abstract titles to learn more!

Presenter: Tomas Rydberg, IVL

ProScale

The ProScaleTMmethod has been developed during 20176-17 in an industrial consortium with expertise both from the Life cycle assessment and Risk assessment areas [1,2]. The purpose of the developmenta has been to achieve an easy-to-use method for assessing direct exposure related Human Toxicity Potentials for product systems (LCA perspective), ideally compatible with Produce Environmental Footprint (PEF). The ProScale methodology can in a simplified way be described using Equation 1, where: PSS denotes the ProScale Score; HF is the Hazard Factor for a substance, derived based on substances classification in the GHS/CLP classification system, reflecting health effect severity and potency based on H-phrase and OEL or DNEL; ECF is the Exposure Concentration Factor, and describes the exposure of a substance based on exposure modelling using a tier 1 exposure model (Based on ECETOC TRA); PHF is a Person-Hour Factordescribing the person-hours of work needed per unit output or input of a process (product or service); and MF is the Mass Flow, describing the amount of a substance needed to produce a product (kg per functional unit). ProScale scores are derived separately for inhalative, oral and dermal exposure routes.

PSS = HF x ECF x PHF x MF                Eq. 1

Database

During 2018, the focus for the work is to develop a database consisting of “default assessments” of at least 200 documented and reviewed datasets, and work is under way. Data sets will cover both industrial processes and service life processes. Examples of these two types of processes are given in the following table.

Table 1: Example of processes, candidate for inclusion in the ProScale defalt database. NB: Work in progress, unvalidated, not to be used “as-is”, or quoted/cited.

  Crude oil extraction Flooring (use) in residential building
Life cycle phase Industrial process Service life
HF, Hazard factor (chosen example substance) 100000 (crude oil) 1.38E+04 (DEHP)
Exposure estimation source Assuming PROC 2 Measured, literature data
ECF, Exposure concentration factor (dimensionless) 0.07 0.00002
PHF, Person hour factor (h/kg) 0.0004 880
ProScale score: HF*ECF*PHF

(MF, here = 1)

2.8

(per kg crude oil)

243

(per kg flooring)

 

We encourage parties interested in contributing to the development to get in contact with us, and join the user community, or volunteer to serve in the technical committee to help developing datasets to the data base, among other options.

1.   References

[1]Rydberg T, et al (2017), A method for application-specific human health risk estimation from chemical exposure in an LCA context, platform presentation, SETAC Europe 27thAnnual Meeting, Brussels.

[2] ProScale (2017), ProScale: A life cycle oriented method to assess toxicological potentials of product systems, Guidance document, version 1.5, available at www.proscale.org

 

*) The ProScale founding consortium consists of BASF, Covestro, DOW, DSM, IVL, Kingspan, Solvay.

Presenter: Hélène Teulon, Gingko 21

Co-Authors: Anne Asselin, Hans Blonk

Feeding 10 billions people is probably the major challenge of the XXIst century. Food has to supply the necessary nutrients to humans, therefore setting nutrition as its fundamental purpose. Additionally, the way forward has to be sustainable, entailing an in-depth transformation of the current food production and consumption patterns.
In designing this compelling future, two additional aspects have to be accounted for : first, food has to be affordable ; and second, dietary customs are diverse around the world, and each constitute a starting point for potential changes.

Accounting for those dimensions, the presentation is reviewing possible levers towards more sustainable food production and consumption systems.
• Government at national level may run prospective studies, frame and guide agricultural production, develop guidelines for food consumption combining environmental and nutrition targets. They may also lead by example by procuring more sustainable food combining the various dimensions.
• Catering companies may work at providing more sustainable menus, especially through appropriate tools and training.
• Food-processing companies may revise their recipes and products in the same perspective.
• Consumers, as the end users, should benefit from information and tools enabling them to make informed decisions towards responsible and healthy diets.
Examples of actions on all these levels will be detailed in the presentation, based on the authors’ experience.

Eating for 2 degrees new and updated livewell plates, WWF UK, Hans Blonk, Roline Broekema, August 2017
HumVi – Agri-footprint® Performance Report, Agri-footprint® & Blonk Consultants, 2017
Blonk Agri-footprint BV, Agri-footprint 2.0 – Part 1 – Methodology and basic principles, Gouda, the Netherlands, 2015

Presenter: Francesco Baldoni, Esalex srl

Co-Authors: Valeria Bettini, Giacomo Luvieri, Stefano De Angelis

The Cecchi Agrarian Institute of Pesaro (Italy) is a school that trains hundreds of students every year to good agricultural practices and is also sensitive to new developments in the sector, with particular reference to the environment and climate change. For this reason, it has taken the design idea offered by Esalex srl to activate a carbon-footprint (CFP) project for extra virgin olive oil produced by the farm within the school.
The collaboration project between Istituto Cecchi and Esalex srl, organized within an experience of Alternating School-Work, has directly involved 3 students of the institute in the study of the CFP of the oil produced inside the school. The students analyzed the production chain, managed almost entirely by internal school structures: from field activities (plowing, use of fertilizers and plant protection products, irrigation, internal transport), to the management of the crusher, up to the choice of packaging and sale .
The students, on the indication of competent personnel, have researched the primary data in the various situations; finally, the data were revised using programs dedicated to the LCA study.
The CFP study was completed and the CO2 emissions of the different phases were compared, from which it emerged that the field phase is the one with the greatest impact.
Students were able to better understand the nature of the CFP study, noting the difference between the study of a product derived from nature and the study of its environmental feature as an ecological footprint.
Finally, the students, with the support of staff from the Cecchi Institute, animated the idea proposed by Esalex srl for the creation of a video clip dedicated to this experience. This tool is currently being finished and will participate in a competition promoted by the Chambers of Commerce in Italy.

Presenter: Francesco Baldoni, Esalex srl

Co-Author: Valeria Bettini, Katia Fabiani

The company Giovanni Fabiani has been producing high quality women’s shoes for an international market for 50 years. For some years the attention has also shifted to identify forms of environmental enhancement of the product and therefore a structured project has been activated aimed to:
1. define and consolidate a company environmental management system, certified ISO 14001;
2. define an internal procedure to support the planning and purchasing functions, able to compare different materials (by type and by origin / supply) and indicate their level of attention to the environment;
3. define the best ecological product to be proposed to the market and to define its environmental impact as CO2 emitted (carbon-footprint), ISO 14067 certificate
The project, approved internally in June 2016, currently (March 2018) has achieved ISO 14001 certification while it is in the audit phase of the third party accredited for the Carbon-Footprint certification.
This experience highlighted two main orders of problems:
• one relating to direct aspects (plant consumption)
• one relating to indirect aspects (raw materials from suppliers).
For direct aspects a criticality is linked to the fact that a prototype is a single piece and with many uncertainties, including the actual industrial cost (as management of the process), to be verified and validated later. The degree of accuracy of the measurements depends on the degree of customer attention for that specific product. Therefore we understand the strategic and fundamental role of the marketing position.
For indirect aspects, the highest criticality has been in the relationship with suppliers and in particular with those that supply “ecological” raw materials and whose chemical component is relevant: many ecological statements are not based on readily verifiable evidence (i.e.: in-depth safety data sheets just within the limits established by law or general difficulty in demonstrating compliance with certain requirements to be compared with certain standards). In this sense, we are witnessing a market that has yet to grow and acquire knowledge and skills: the higher the knowledge and the environmental expertise of companies that purchase materials with environmental value, the greater the technical-environmental characteristic guaranteed by the supplying companies of innovative materials and of environmental value.
This Carbon Footprint study is completing and has been the bearer of information that was not previously known (i.e.: great impact linked to the part of the sole block) and that will be carefully evaluated to improve the product.

Presenter: Urte Brand, DLR Institute of Networked Energy Systems

Co-authors: Thomas Vogt, Kirsten Kleis

Presently, great effort is being made to design and establish ecological friendly and resilient concepts and technologies in the energy sector meet climate goals and at the same time deal with energy supply shortage.
Motivated by our assumption that the implementation of an electric driven compressor (EC) using renewable energies (RE) can reduce ecological impacts and costs and serve as a flexible load in situations of overload in the power grid and thus increase their social acceptance in comparison to a conventional gas driven compressor (GC), we assessed both kinds of compressors. In this context, we suppose that a multi-criteria approach can help addressing different kinds of criteria since it considers all relevant aspects (economic, ecological and social) (Geldermann and Lerche, 2014).
Therefore, we investigated in our study, based on primary data and complemented with data from the ecoinvent database, one gas compressor station in the gas transport grid which is equipped with compressors driven either by a GC or an EC to compress natural gas for transportation. The turbine uses natural gas as fuel whilst the motor can be driven by power from RE, e.g. wind power.
Besides of analysing relevant criteria and methods to evaluate compressor stations holistically, we focused on a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) according to DIN EN ISO 14040/44 and conducted a comparative LCA of a GC and an EC using the impact assessment method CML.
Based on first results, the comparison of the GC and EC indicates that the source of energy is significant for the environmental impacts. Using wind energy seems to drastically reduce the impact of the EC especially of fossil depletion and the global warming potential in comparison to the use of the German energy mix and also compared to the use of natural gas in the GC. The use phase (use of natural gas and power supply) has the greatest impact in most impact categories compared to the production phase, both for EC and GC. This shows a great influence of the use of energy needed to drive the compressor.

In our contribution we will present the following topics:

  • Criteria and methods to be considered in a multi-criteria assessment of compressor stations
  • Results of a comparative LCA of gas and electric driven compressors considering sensitive analyses
  • Pointing out optimization potentials

Geldermann and Lerche, 2014, Leitfaden zur Anwendung von Methoden der multikriteriellen Entscheidungsunterstützung. https://www.uni-goettingen.de/de/document/download/285813337d59201d34806cfc48dae518.pdf/MCDA-Leitfaden-PROMETHEE.pdf [02.03.2018]

DIN EN ISO 14040:2009-11 Umweltmanagement – Ökobilanz – Grundsätze und Rahmenbedingungen

DIN EN ISO 14044:2006-10 Umweltmanagement – Ökobilanz – Anforderungen und Anleitungen

Presenter: Asuka Takeda, Kogakuin University

Co-authors: Osamu Namikawa, Atsushi Inaba

Recently, Information and communication technology (ICT) has become more popular. The reduction amount of GHGs by ICT is estimated to reach 125 million tons by 2020. The net GDP of the ICT industry is now 9.3% of all industries in Japan. We have been developing the evaluation method of ICT, which consists of three-dimension on environmental, economic and social aspects. In this report, we selected TV conference system, Cloud system and Wearable device and discussed their social aspects.

At first, we surveyed actual situation for use of each ICT System by literature, examined their influence on society and drew the laddering diagram from use to social aspects. Next, we held a workshop to discuss these social aspects of each ICT with a few ICT experts and a consumer.
As the result, it was found that TV conference system could provide time to do the next works because of avoidance of the needless business trip. Cloud system was found to have a positive aspect that the responsibility caused by losing the data could be avoided, but there was also a negative aspect that the rented data to the cloud system might be stolen by the operating company of its cloud system. Wearable device was found to be able easily to manage health and time and to eliminate the risk to use a mobile phone while on walking or driving.

Furthermore, the lifecycle stage of ICT was divided into producers, introducers (enterprises) and users. And then, the environmental, economic and social aspects of each stage were assessed by monetary values.
As the result, in TV conference system, the monetary values of economic aspects such as cost reduction by avoided a business trip and the monetary values of social aspects such as increase of time to be able to do the next works. In cloud system, the monetary values of the social aspects had a large part, in which the troubles of the data users could be avoided if the cloud system was used. In Smart Watch, the social aspects such as to eliminate the risk by using a mobile phone while on walking or driving and to reduce time by using e-money were dominant.

As social aspects were different for each ICT, it was necessary to draw and discuss these laddering diagrams. Moreover, there are some social aspects such as mental stress, which is difficult to be assessed by monetary values.

Presenter: Tomasz Stec, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, G-SCOP, Grenoble, France

Co-authors: Peggy Zwolinski

It is evident that society today is not sustainable. Many beneficial solutions have been developed, yet they are not widely implemented. Why not? This work attempts to identify the key boundary preventing sustainability progress and suggests a new solution. It is not a lack of knowledge that hinders society’s development in a more sustainable direction, it is a much more internal and primitive barrier: fear. It must be acknowledged that fear is the key barrier, and by addressing this issue, sustainability work can be implemented more effectively in real-world scenarios.

In circular economy, no tools include a strategy for addressing the psychological aspect of fear. Therefore, it is vital to expand our sustainability efforts from strict process and knowledge development, to include overcoming barriers in the minds of decision makers. Our brains have two basic parts, the limbic (primitive) part that deals with emotions and the logical part that deals with rational thought. The problem is that even though fear is an emotional issue, it is being dealt with on a logical level – which does not work. The logical mind needs proof, while the emotional mind needs persuasion.

Current tools connect with practitioners on a logical level – if someone is interested in obtaining a specific result, this is how they can get there. The fundamental problem with sustainability however, is that most companies are not interested in sustainability. Therefore, tools need to connect with practitioners a step earlier, on an emotional level, and overcome the fear by empowering the user as opposed to making them feel like external demands are being forced on them. How can companies be approached more effectively so as to feel that circular economy is the natural growth of their company?

In response, the Circular Economy Decision Compass is proposed. The tool is used as a thermometer to evaluate the circularity of decisions on a strategic level. The tool is built based on the different steps needed to achieve full circularity, breaks them down into clearly defined levels, logically demonstrating the different steps needed. The steps reflect the need for both material usage as well as a change in awareness. It is applicable in all companies because it works with the companies own working values.

This work was carried out as part of the EU project on Circular Economy
called CIRC€UIT, for one of 15 PhD positions examining the practical sides of this sustainability strategy.

T. J. M. Bench-Capon, “Persuasion in Practical Argument Using
Value-based Argumentation Frameworks,” vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 429–
448, 2017.

N.M.P. Bocken, P. Rana & S.W. Short (2015) Value mapping for sustainable busines thinking, Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering, 32:1,67-81, DOI: 10.1080/21681015.2014.1000399

T. Koller, “What is value-based management? | McKinsey &
Company,” in Valuation: Measuring and Managing the Value of
Companies, second edition., no. August 1994, 1994, pp. 1–17.

S. Sinek, Start with Why: How Great Leaders Inspire Everyone to
Take Action, Reprint Ed. Portfolio, 2011.

W. Steffen et al., “Planetary boundaries: Guiding human
development on a changing planet,” Science (80-. )., 2015.

Presenter: Fernando Henriques Salina, WayCarbon

Co-authors: Felipe Braggio Molina, Reynaldo Palacios-Bereche

The ethanol’s production process in Brazil is already well established, but there is space to reduce the environmental impact and operation costs. One of the main topics in the area is the destination of the sugarcane straw, a reject generated in the agricultural stage. The rapid pyrolysis is a thermochemical route that uses biomass, such as the sugarcane straw, to produces bio-oil. Diversification of products and thermal integration are key concepts to reduce the environmental impact in processes. However, there is no studies that evaluate the benefits when the ethanol’s production process is working integrated to the pyrolysis process. For this reason, this work presents an evaluation of the environmental impacts in the thermal integration between fast pyrolysis and ethanol production process. This study presents an energetic and environmental analysis of the integration pyrolysis with the ethanol’s production process. The first step was simulated the pyrolysis plant and the ethanol production process in AspenPlus® software. After this step, was performed a thermal integration between the ethanol’s process and the fast pyrolysis of sugarcane straw using the Pinch point methodology. With the results of the simulation and the thermal integration was possible to perform a life cycle assessment of 4 different cases. The themal integrated cases (Caso II and Caso IV) showed a significant environmental impact reduction in the Water Depletion (WD) and the Particulate Material Formation (FMP). Compared the Caso IV (Ethanol and fast pyrolysis process plant and thermal integrated) with Case I (conventional ethanol process production) there was a reduction of 22.2% in WD and 24.2% in FMP. The valorization of the sugarcane straw reduces the impacts in agricultural phase with allows a significant reduction in the majority of the categories studied. By this means, both thermal integration and pyrolysis integration allowed a significant positive environmental impact.

PINA, E. A. et al. Reduction of process steam demand and water-usage through heat integration in sugar and ethanol production from sugarcane – Evaluation of different plant configurations. Energy, 2015.

CAVALETT, O. et al. Comparative LCA of ethanol versus gasoline in Brazil using different LCIA methods. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA), n. 18, p. 647–658, 2013.

PETERS, J. F. et al. A kinetic reaction model for biomass pyrolysis processes in Aspen Plus. Applied Energy, v. 188, p. 595-603, 2017.

RANZI, E.; DEBIAGI, P. E. A.; FRASSOLDATI, A. Mathematical Modeling of Fast Biomass Pyrolysis and Bio-Oil Formation. Note I: Kinetic Mechanism of Biomass Pyrolysis. ACS Sustainable Chem, v. 5, p. 2867−2881, 2017.

Presenter: Max Sonnen, Ecomatters

Co-author: Pau Huguet Ferran

The Environmental Footprint methodology was tested within 22 different industries ranging from food to basic metals, and from clothing to construction products. These involved have developed specific Product Environmental Footprint Category Rules (PEFCR) for their products based on general Environmental Footprint methodology. As EF pilot will end in April 2018, and the European Commission has planned a follow-up transition phase set to end in 2020. During this time, the policy implications and further EC roll-out will be discussed. In addition, companies and interested parties will have the opportunity to start using the PEFCRs to do PEF calculations and those industries not yet involved in the EF pilot will have the opportunity to develop their own PECFR.
The European paint industry was involved in the pilot and has been developing their Decorative Paint PEFCR since 2013. This session will share these experiences including:
• Lessons learned and best practices in developing the paints PEFCR and operating as a Technical Secretariat
• Experiences and best practices in developing the EF compliant Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) datasets
• Outlook and next steps for the paint industry using the PEFCR and calculating PEFs for paint
• General expectations for until the end of 2020 and beyond
Ecomatters has been working with the paint industry for over 6 years on Life Cycle Assessment and PEF projects. Ecomatters supported the PEFCR for the paint industry by conducting the screening study, many supporting studies, drafting documents and, as part of the consortium, developing the EF compliant Datasets. Additionally, Max Sonnen has been part of the Technical Secretariat and a representative of the paint industry at the Technical Advisory Board of the EF pilot phase.

Presenter: Nicolás Bermejo, Saint Gobain Isover

Co-authors: Marcel Gómez

The world is changing faster than ever. While advances in science and technology have improved our quality of life, they have also revealed the fragile balance of the environment.
To address these issues we must change the way we design new buildings or refurbish existing ones in order to reduce their negative impacts on the environment during its life cycle, opening our minds to new construction systems, such as industrialized housing, with spread use in the most developed countries.
Buildings generate important environmental impacts throughout all the stages of their life cycle from the extraction of the raw materials composing the building, its transport, the use and maintenance and finally its end of life. The application of the Life Cycle Assessment approach to a building allows to identify from the design phase constructive solutions and installations that minimize the impacts of the building throughout all stages of its life cycle (from the cradle to grave).
Sustainability in construction is more and more (even too much) currently used but…how to distinguish if a project is sustainable or not? What role do constructive systems play when designing and constructing sustainable buildings? What can we expect from the LCA and Environmental Product Declarations of a complete building? How can we reach the end user with concepts that incorporate evident technical complexity? And finally the most important issue….are these buildings comfortable for the user?
In this presentation, it is presented the conclusions of all the work carried out for the design and construction of the first industrialized housing at the international level (with Passivhaus certification) which environmental performance is communicated through an Environmental Product Declaration published on one of the most recognized EPD programs: The International EPD® System, and based on ISO 14040, ISO 14044, ISO 14025 and ISO 21930 international standards.
The life cycle of an industrialized housing presents an impact at least 59% lower than a traditional housing, with a saving of 125.9 Tn of CO2-eq and 27 days of life of a person lost by death or disease. The lower impact is mainly due to the presence of a lighter structure in wood, its low energy consumption during the use phase and its potential of reuse/reutilization.
The approach taken in this project is aligned with LEVELS European project and new mandatory LCA requirements in new construction buildings introduced in national legislations i.e. in France, Holland or Germany.

Presenter: Felix Piontek, Ulm University

Co-authors: Martin Müller

The textile sector causes a lot of ecological and social problems. Besides reduction of inputs and waste or sustainable design of garments, literature considers product-service systems (PSS) as one way to strengthen sustainability. Based on interviews with the founders of start-ups who offer casual clothing for rent (a use-oriented PSS), we simulate a business model. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to analyze whether it provides ecological benefits compared to conventional consumption.
These concepts are currently on a start-up stage – but what will happen if bigger companies adapt the business model, more costumers rent their everyday clothes instead of buying them and what will this mean for the environment?
We will present our current stage of research as well as our methodical approach to evaluate and scale PSS using LCA. As the functional unit, we use “one year of varied use of clothing” instead of e.g. to reflect the consumer utility of a PSS.

Presenter: Christian Dierks, Fraunhofer Project Group Materials Recycling and Resource Strategies IWKS

Co-authors: Dr. Andrea Gassmann, Prof. Dr. Rudolf Stauber

Resource scarcity has become a central topic in today’s society. Recycling plays a major role within the field of circular economy, contributing to the closing of material cycles and conserving natural resources as well as reducing landfilling and waste incineration.
In this contribution results will be presented that were obtained within the MinSEM project that is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). In this project recycling routes are developed for optical glasses and catalyst slag. The latter is a by-product of catalyst recycling which is currently landfilled. In this study, the different recycling options for catalyst slag will be assessed using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA):
(a) High-end recycling options: Several process routes aiming at the recovery of platinum group metals and rare earth elements including process steps such as leaching, extraction, extraction with tunable alkyl-aryl ionic liquids and mechanochemical extraction,
(b) Low-tech recycling option: One alternative option aiming at using the ground slag as a supplementary cementious material (SCM).
LCA is a well-established method for quantifying and evaluating potential environmental impacts of product systems throughout their life cycles. The LCA framework is standardized (ISO 14040/44) and includes four phases: definition of goal and scope, life cycle inventory analysis, life cycle impact assessment and interpretation.
The functional unit is the recycling of 1 metric ton of catalyst slag. Recycling hast two integral purposes. From the perspective of the end-of-life product it is a means of waste disposal. Concurrently it produces secondary (recycled) raw materials, which can replace virgin materials. In order to account for both functions a consequential approach was followed, considering the change of environmental impacts associated with the recycling of the catalyst slag as opposed to the current practice of landfilling. Credits for the avoided landfilling are included in the life cycle inventory. The system boundaries include the recycling processes to the point of substitution, taking into account the displacement of primary materials.
Intermediate results indicate that the use of catalyst slag as SCM can be environmentally feasible, as little processing is needed and the energy intensive production of Portland cement can be displaced.

Presenter: Fernando Henriques Salina, WayCarbon

Co-author: Matheus Alves de Brito

The concern with climate change impacts is growing year by year not only by science community but also by the society in general. The IPCC studies show that the global temperature rise should be under 2ºC to avoid irreversible damage to the human live on Earth. To accomplish this goal, intergovernmental regulatory tools are necessary in order to reduce the greenhouse gases emission in global level. Carbon Pricing is an important financial tool in politics involved in climate change. This tool aims to increase the price of carbon intensity technologies and gives financial competitiveness for low greenhouse emissions technologies. However, the carbon pricing regulation normally involves local approach (country or state), which stunts the implementation of an international regulatory base to calculate the carbon price. As result of this, CO2e emission calculation are different country by country and some are financial favored in export trades, decreasing the efficiency of this tool and the potential of greenhouse emission reduction. The life cycle approach homogenizes the carbon emission calculation, allowing the countries to use the same methodology. In this sense, EPDs (environmental product declaration) have an important task in the standardization of life cycle and should be considered in international Carbon Pricing politics. This article presents a brief guide about the part of life cycle in the Carbon Pricing tool in the international scenario. The goal of this article is to show the importance of life cycle assessment studies to measure carbon footprint as impartial analysis and to appoint the benefits of implementing the life cycle approach in Carbon Pricing.

“11 essential questions for designing a policy to price carbon”. Adele Morris
” HANDBOOK ON CARBON PRICING INSTRUMENTS”. The Climate reality Project
” A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE ECONOMICS OF CARBON PRICING” Ross McKitrick
“Precificação de Carbono: Oque o setor empresarial precisa saber para se posicionar” CEBS

Presenter: Sandra Boldoczki, University of Augsburg

Co-authors: Lukas Messmann, Andrea Thorenz, Axel Tuma

The European Union defines “preparing for reuse” as the second highest priority of waste management right after waste prevention. Reusing products extends their lifetime and reduces the raw material required for new products, but may come at the cost of a delayed market entry for new eco-efficient technologies. This is particularly important for Electric and Electronic Equipment (EEE), for which product lifetimes are short, reuse happens rarely and environmental impacts are presumed to mainly arise pre-use (raw material provision and production stage). We examine this presumption by analyzing the ecological savings potential through the reuse of electrical domestic appliances and define optimal service-lifespans. This serves as a basis for recommendations for politics and consumers and may lead to innovative business models.
Based on primary data, we identify four small electrical appliances and four white goods which together account for 68% by weight of the WEEE that is collected within municipalities of the German state of Bavaria. We quantify the ecological savings potential, based on an extensive literature review and LCAs. Particularly, the results for global warming potential, human toxicity, water depletion, abiotic depletion potential and cumulative energy demand are compared for the two scenarios “reuse” and “new acquisition”. The reuse scenario comprises cleaning and repair and the second use-phase, while the new acquisition-scenario includes the end of life of the first product, manufacturing and the subsequent use-phase. Efficiency gains of the new products during the use-phase are considered.
According to literature, reuse is the preferred option for products, whenever environmental impacts mainly originate from manufacturing. In other cases, the decision depends on efficiency thresholds, product age, maximum lifespan or energy mix. By quantifying the environmental savings for the reuse of products, we support eco-design of products and end of life decision making.

Presenter: Julio Fierro, Centro Tecnológico de Investigación Multisectorial (CETIM)

Co-author: Cristina Martínez

DWOR (Durable Water and Oil Repellents) are textile-finishing products used by the industry to provide water, oil and dirt repellency to fabrics. Conventional DWOR’s chemistry have been based on long chain perfluorocarbon (LC-PFC) polymers. These substances, when released to the environment, are degraded into highly stable compounds which have been pointed out as bioaccumulative, persistent and harmful for human health and environment[1]. Some of them are currently under restriction, like PFOA, PFOS and other related compounds[2].
Since 2000’s, many alternatives have been proposed to replace LC-PFC based DWORS, based in short-chain perfluorochemicals (PFC) (C6 or C4) and other PFC-free substances (waxes, silicones, dendrimers, etc.). However, both textile performance and environmental impact must be assets for a successful substitution process.
Under these background, MIDWOR-LIFE Project aims to analyse the environmental impact, human health risks and technical performance of current and future DWOR alternatives, in order to asses manufactures on the best available technologies for repellent finishing. As part of this project, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been performed in order to evaluate the environmental impact of the different DWORs studied.
Six scenarios have been built to compare the environmental footprint of different DWORs; two conventional (C8-PFC & C6-PFC chemistry) and four alternatives (silicone, perfluorosilicone, paraffin and dendrimer). As part of the MIDWOR-LIFE project, these six DWORs have been tested at laboratory scale, and at six pilot textile manufacturing companies under real operation conditions, providing the required information to complete the Life Cycle Inventory. LCA boundaries have been set to evaluate only the finishing stage of the textile process, omitting all the stages prior to the garment production and after the finishing process (gate-to-gate approach). However, the complete LCA of the DWOR products have been considered.
In order to reflect DWORs impact over human health and environment properly, degradation products from conventional DWORs have been included into ILCD substance database, providing the Characterisation factors from reliable sources and the Risk Assessment activity performed as part of MIDWOR-Life Project. LCA has been carried out using the software Simapro 8 and the Ecoinvent v3.3 Database. Standards ISO 14040 and 14044 have been used as guidelines for the assessment, as well as the “ILCD handbook: General guide for LCA” published by the European Commission[3].

MIDWOR-LIFE is a project co-funded by the European Community under the LIFE+ Financial Instrument within the axe Environment Policy and Governance and under the Grant Agreement n. LIFE14 ENV/ES/000670

[1] H. Holmquist, S. Schellenberger, I. van der Veen, G. M. Peters, P. E. G. Leonards, and I. T. Cousins, ‘Properties, performance and associated hazards of state-of-the-art durable water repellent (DWR) chemistry for textile finishing’, Environ. Int., vol. 91, pp. 251–264, May 2016.
[2] ‘News – ECHA: RAC concludes on PFOA restriction’. [Online]. Available: http://echa.europa.eu/view-article/-/journal_content/title/rac-concludes-on-pfoa-restriction. [Accessed: 30-Mar-2016].
[3] European Commission, Joint Research Centre, and Institute for Environment and Sustainability, International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook – General guide for Life Cycle Assessment – Detailed guidance. Luxembourg: Publications Office, 2010.

Presenter: Paula Quinteiro, University of Aveiro

The use of biomass for energy production has been increasing in the last years, highlighting the importance of wood resource in sustainable economies. Wood combustion has been encouraged with the purpose of enabling the reduction of fossil fuels dependency and, thus contribute for decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. In Portugal, approximately 3.1 million hectares of land is covered by forests, which represent 35% of the national territory, making Portugal a country with a great potential for the exploitation of forest biomass.

In the present study, life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is applied for comparing the environmental impacts of three wood-based combustion systems for producing thermal energy for domestic heating: a pellets stove using maritime pine pellets as feedstock; a wood stove using eucalyptus and maritime pine logs as feedstock, and; a fireplace using eucalyptus and maritime pine logs as feedstock. The functional unit is 1 MJ of thermal energy produced for domestic heating. System boundaries include four stages: (1) forest management from both eucalyptus and maritime pine species; (2) pellets and wood logs production; (3) distribution of pellets and wood logs, and; (4) thermal energy conversion, also including ashes disposal in landfill. Inventory data are representative of the current typical technological systems in Portugal. Characterisation factors from ReCiPe were applied, for the following impact categories: climate change; fossil depletion; terrestrial acidification; freshwater and marine eutrophication; human toxicity; photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation; terrestrial and freshwater ecotoxicity.

The production of thermal energy from maritime pine pellets results in the lowest impacts in terms of climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter (PM) and terrestrial ecotoxicity. For other impact categories, wood logs burned in wood stoves and fireplaces present lowest impacts. Exceptions were observed for: (1) marine eutrophication, in which eucalyptus have the highest impacts because of nitrates emission to water during forest management stage, and; (2) fossil depletion, in which eucalyptus burned in fireplace present higher impacts than pellets, eucalyptus burned in a wood stove and pine burned in both woodstove and fireplace.

The low emission of PM from pellet stove is related with the higher combustion efficiency and lower emission of PM of pellets stoves when compared with conventional stoves and fireplaces (the lowest efficiency and highest PM emissions). This study can support decision making to predict what is the most suitable system to produce domestic heating, and which biomass feedstock should be used, using specific data.

Presenter: Jahau Lewis Chen, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University

The purpose of this paper is to address the role of TRIZ methods and biomimetic design concepts in sustainable innovation for sustainable products. TRIZ methods had been proposed as an useful tool for inspiring new idea for eco-innovation of eco-products. Biomimetics, biomimicry, or bionic design is a subject to mimic the organic characteristics and to practice these in product design. They will offer sustainable design solutions to engineering problems. These design concepts from nature are becoming more and more important for the designer recently.
In this paper, various methods for sustainable innovation by TRIZ methods and biomimetic design concepts are reviewed and directions for future research are discussed.

[1] Cheong H, Chiu I, Shu LH, Stone RB, McAdams DA. Biologically meaningful keywords for functional terms of the functional basis. J Mechanical Design 2011; 133:2, 021007-1~021007-11.
[2] Chen JL, Jian YH. Eco-innovation by biological terminology, biomimetic concepts and TRIZ techniques. In: Proceedings of the sixth international symposium on environmentally conscious design and inverse manufacturing, Ecodesign09; 2009, Sapporo, Japan, December 7-9.
[3] Chen JL, Yang YC. Eco-innovation by integrating biomimetic with TRIZ ideality and evolution rules. In: Hesselbach J, Herrmann C, editors. Glocalized solutions for sustainability in manufacturing. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p.101-106.
[4] Chen WC,. Chen JL. Eco-innovation by Integrating Biomimetic Design and ARIZ, Procedia CIRP, 2014; 15:401-406.
[5] Vincent JFV, Bogatyreva O, Bogatyrev N, Bowyer A, Pahl AK. (2006): Biomimetics – its practice and theory. J Royal Society Interface; 2006; 3, p. 471-482.

Presenter: René Itten, Zurich University of Applied Sciences

Co-authors: Matthias Stucki, Petra Bättig-Frey, Isabel Jaisli

The environmental footprint of our society is highly influenced by each citizen’s daily decision. What we eat, how we live and what we buy has a major impact on the magnitude of resource use, pollution or climate change. Jungbluth et al (2011) revealed the actual environmental impact of various consumption domains in Switzerland. The result show the great impact of individual lifestyles, mainly decisions on nutrition, mobility and housing, on the countries sustainability outcomes. The promotion of environmentally responsible behavior is therefore indispensable for a sustainable society. The challenge arises, how a broader public can be informed and motivated to take such sustainable decisions in daily life. As concluded by Goel & Sivam (2015) motivating individual consumers through information can help to influence sustainable choices, especially if consumers are influenced in a positive way.

New formats in sustainability communication are emerging – less formal, more fun, at the interface between science, sustainability and entertainment. Some of these new communication formats have already been shown to promote awareness about sustainability challenges among citizens, to increase motivation and engagement (Chappin, Bijvoet, & Oei, 2017; Kasurinen & Knutas, 2018).

The “Eco-Confessional” has been developed as an attempt to inform a broad audience about the environmental impact of daily life decisions and to motivate people towards a more sustainable behaviour. The key strategy was to achieve these outcomes through an experience that arouses curiosity, surprise and fun.
The eco-confessional is been conceptualized following the well-known concept of confessions in the Catholic Church, however modified to confessions of ecological sins of daily life. On an interactive screen visitors are able to confess their eco-sins and choose good deeds for compensation in a playful manner. Data from current life cycle assessments was used to quantify the environmental impact of these daily life choices. As the extent of impact on the environment of the ‘sin’ was compared to the ‘good deed’ the magnitude of everyday habits was made comprehensible.
The eco-confessional has been exhibited on various events in Switzerland and Germany. Additionally, a webtool and mobile App was made available (http://www.oekobeichtstuhl.ch). To evaluate the impact, the project has been accompanied by an evaluation.

We will present the concept and rationalizing of the eco-confessional and aggregated insights from the life cycle assessments of daily life sins. Additionally, we will show the results of the overall project evaluation, including acceptance, reactions and impact of the eco-confessional, and discuss major challenges and potentials of gamification for life cycle education.

Chappin, E. J. L., Bijvoet, X., & Oei, A. (2017). Teaching sustainability to a broad audience through an entertainment game – The effect of Catan: Oil Springs. Journal of Cleaner Production, 156, 556–568. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.04.069

Goel, S., & Sivam, A. (2015). Social dimensions in the sustainability debate: The impact of social behaviour in choosing sustainable practices in daily life. International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, 7(1), 61–71. https://doi.org/10.1080/19463138.2014.953537

Jungbluth N., Nathani C., Stucki, M., Leuenberger, M. (2011). Environmental impacts of Swiss consumption and production. A combination of input-output analysis with life cycle assessment. Environmental studies no. 1111. Bern.

Kasurinen, J., & Knutas, A. (2018). Publication trends in gamification: A systematic mapping study. Computer Science Review, 27, 33–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosrev.2017.10.003

Presenter: Andreas Fritsch, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

Co-authors:  Sebastian Jekutsch

While many consumers are aware of social issues like child labor or health risks for workers when it comes to food and clothing (given the growing success of „fair-trade“-sales), an awareness for fairness in electronics among consumers and producers seems not so well established. There are rare examples of efforts like Fairphone (for smartphones), Nager-IT (for computer mice), and Fairloetet (for soldering tin) that try to tackle this issue. Still, potential fairness problems can be identified along the whole life cycle of an electronics product: for example the mining of so called “conflict minerals” that finance armed conflicts in Central Africa or cases of child labor in artisanal gold mining. However, due to the complexity of electronics supply chains it is much harder to ensure the fairness of a product, or even to evaluate the social risks. To address this, we are working on a specialized, easy to use tool for the social assessment of electronics products. The general idea is to allow businesses to come to an initial idea of potential social risks in their supply chain, simply by uploading the bill of materials (electronic components) of a product under consideration. The result is then an initial hotspot analysis based on a generic as well as component-specific assessment of social issues. In our contribution we present an initial prototype that shows the viability of our idea. We discuss our approach that is based on the S-LCA guidelines (ref 1), using generic data for social risks and electronics components. Finally, we discuss challenges in the way of its realization and future steps.

UNEP/Setac Guidelines for Social Life Cycle Assessment, 2009

Presenter: Elise Monnier, Liten CEA Tech

Co-Authors: Philippe Thony, Arnaud Jay, Philippe Caillol

End of 2017, CEA held an internal call for ideas to answer the question “How to act on the building and renovation sectors to make cities cleaner”. The question was asked to more than 4000 researchers and employees from various domains: energy, material or microelectronic research, fundamental research on life sciences, smart digital systems research, patent department, marketing, technical services… The audience was encouraged to contribute as experts of their field but also as users of buildings.

This action was conducted by our eco-innovation facilitator, inspired by eco-innovation methods available in literature ([1], [2], [3]) and crowdsourcing internal know-how. It was created to support our research team dedicated to the building and renovation applications in CEA division Liten (Laboratory of Innovation for New Energy Technologies). The purpose was to feed their research roadmap with new ideas and fields of innovation while initiating internal transversal collaboration. The corporate objective was to support the integration of sustainability in research conducted in the next 10 years for urban development.

This call for ideas has been held during four weeks on an internal crowdsourcing virtual platform. About 20% of the audience invited visited the platform. And 20% of the visitors actively contributed to the generation of ideas and their enrichment. 159 ideas were generated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and to increase resource efficiency of cities and buildings. After sorting and converging actions, this work led to a new research roadmap for our building research team. 10 research projects of various size, horizon and budget have been already outlined.

Beyond the objectives of the internal client, this campaign also allowed different categories of staff to get involved in developing a strategy for the future. The appropriation of this wide subject by the capitalization of ideas tool makes it possible to value this commitment and concretize it during the year 2018.
Finally, the campaign has contributed to the development of an eco-innovation methodology replicable inside and outside the company.

The objective of this contribution is to relate this experiment. The methodology followed:
– to incite eco-innovation more than innovation
– to facilitate open-innovation inside a large organization
– to mobilize such a large audience
– to encourage transversality in a large organization with innovation to solve sustainability problems.

 

[1] H. Teulon. Le guide de l’éco-innovation. Éco-concevoir pour gagner en compétitivité. Éditions Eyrolles, 2015. 279 p. ADEME 8148. ISBN : 978-2-212-55991-0.
[2] UNEP. Eco—i Manual, Eco-innovation implementation process. United Nations Environment Programme 2017. ISBN: 978-92-807-3634-2
[3] A.F. Xavier, R.M. Naveiro, A. Aoussat, T. Reyes. Systematic literature review of eco-innovation models: opportunities and recommendations for future research. Journal of Cleaner Production, 149 (2017), pp. 1278–1302 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.02.145

Presenter: Olivier Talon, Materia Nova

Co-Presenters: Sliman Almuhamed, Driss Lahem

The Interreg FWVL TEXACOV project aims at tackling human health effects of indoor exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by developing solutions for in situ indoor air depollution, without external power supply. For this purpose, active textiles are being developed, into which doped titanium dioxides particles are incorporated. Those doped particles have a photocatalytic effect under visible light that enables converting emitted VOCs such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde or toluene into carbon dioxide and water vapour.

It is one of the aims of the project to use Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tools to help monitoring the innovation process. This contribution shows how LCA is used for an evaluation of the expected benefit of the innovation in terms of human health, due to reduction of indoor exposure of harmful pollutants. In parallel, adverse impacts resulting from the implementation of this technical solution are also evaluated, and additional impacts are thus compared to the avoided ones.

For this purpose, a simplified Life Cycle Inventory of a polyester curtain functionalized by doped titanium dioxide particles was modelled, encompassing raw materials, fabrication, distribution, use phase and end-of-life. Several scenarios were tested for the use phase thanks to parameterization of the model in terms of ventilation and conversion efficiency for a limited list of VOCs. Specific characterization factors for indoor air pollutant exposure were selected based on literature [1].

Preliminary results showed satisfactory trends, with the confirmation of a significant benefit in terms of human health and adverse induced impacts that appear to be negligible in comparison.

[1] – ROSENBAUM, Ralph K., MEIJER, Arjen, DEMOU, Evangelia, et al. Indoor air pollutant exposure for life cycle assessment: regional health impact factors for households. Environmental science & technology, 2015, vol. 49, no 21, p. 12823-12831.

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