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Session Title: Waste Management from a Life Cycle Perspective
Time: 4:15 – 5:15pm
Session Type: Presenting Session
Presenters: Balint Simon, Angela Nagle, Qiyam Maulana Binu Soesanto, Philipp Preiss
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North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) is one of the leading industrial locations in Europe. In order to maintain this position against the background of the goals of the Paris Climate Protection Agreement, the entire technology landscape is facing considerable transformation requirements. Strategic planning and implementation of circular economy measures in all industrial is essential. The plastic packaging sector is facing particularly great challenges regarding the ambitious recycling rates of 58.5% and 65%, respectively, required by the new packaging law came into force in January 2019. The current recycling system is tailored for a significantly lower recycling rate of plastic packaging to only 36 %.
The plastic industry is intrinsic in NRW and represents the full value chain from basic petrochemical process installation to the final end-use products. Due to the high population density, post-consumer packaging plastic waste (“light weight packaging” – LWP) production potential is considerable with an annual generation of 0.6 million tons from separated collections, without the PET deposit-refund system. It represents the 25% of the overall annual amount of LWP arising in Germany’s 16 federal states.
We aim at analyzing the plastic’s value-chain with focus on packaging wastes in order to understand, how to adapt the system to the above-mentioned (almost) doubled recycling rate. Thus, we carried out a network analysis including all industrial stakeholders of the life cycle of plastic packaging in NRW, from the production of the plastic granulate to the recycling of the LWP. The result provides an overview of the plastic packaging industry in NRW and visualizes by using graph-theoretical methods.
The resulting graphs serve as maps and form the basis to pursue the relationships between supply chain actors and to identify key segments and substantial secondary products. The graphs were built using two different approaches, actor-by-actor and actor-by-product connections. The emission savings potential, e.g. the GHG emission potential within the value chain, is quantified in addition to the classical physical connections-based analysis. The current analysis contributes substantially to the understanding of the value-added network of plastic packaging in NRW and the timely identification of bottlenecks.
Based on our insights, we derive general conclusions on the contribution of graph-theoretical methods for environmental analyses in the recycling industry.
The analysis is part of the project “SCI4climate.NRW” funded by the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Innovation, Digitalization and Energy NRW.
Nuss, P., W.-Q. Chen, H. Ohno, and T.E. Graedel. 2016. Structural Investigation of Aluminum in the U.S. Economy using Network Analysis. Environmental Science & Technology 50(7): 4091–4101.
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Lawrence C. Bank
Introduction: The disposal of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) waste from decommissioned wind turbine blades will become a major issue in the coming years. In Ireland, over 60,000 tonnes of GFRP wind turbine blades are expected to be decommissioned by 2038. Landfill operators prefer not to accept this waste due to the blades being both inert and bulky, and recycling of GFRP material is yet to be viable. Repurposing of the blade waste into new applications is an option. However, for improvement to be realised, a repurposing application must be more sustainable than both the current wind blade disposal method, as well as the same application made from virgin materials.
Methods: This study uses Scenario Analysis combined with Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) to evaluate the impacts of using Irish GFRP blade waste in the construction of a pedestrian bridge. The study compares the blade waste bridge to the common disposal method of co-processing of blade waste in a cement kiln, as well as to a standard bridge made from raw materials. LCSA is an interdisciplinary approach to assessing sustainability, combining Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Costing, and Social Life Cycle Assessment. The Social Life Cycle Assessment will be informed by public consultation in which members of a vulnerable community are asked to assess the design for acceptance by their community. These three methods are conducted individually, and the results combined to give a single LCSA score with which to compare the three waste scenarios.
Data: The pedestrian blade bridge will be designed to span a cattle crossing on a greenway in County Cork. The lower 15m of two 25m Vestas V52 blades including the root sections will be utilized for the bridge, while the remaining 10m will be sent for co-processing. Testing of the blade will be done onsite after cutting, and the blades will be transported and stored at a remanufacturing site. Remanufacturing will include drilling holes along the length of the blade to allow reinforcement bars and cement to internally fill the spar caps, capping the cut ends of the blade, building a form for the deck and abutments, and forming a handrail. The bridge will be transported in pieces to the greenway site for installation.
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Manage waste independently would bring many benefits to environment and community. Waste bank is alternative solution to address the increasing volume of waste in the landfill and reduce the number of environment pollution. This research conducted in Semarang, capital city of Central Java province, Indonesia. Questionnaire survey distributed in 35 active waste bank in Semarang. Structural Equation Model method used to obtain correlation among social, knowledge, and behavior between waste bank actor from 30 questions. Regression output used to analyze attribute’s impact to the question’s answer, while covariance output used to analyze relation between attribute`s. The result has significant impact if the Critical Ratio value is more than 1.96 and P value is lower than 0.5. Result for waste bank actor, total family member give positive significant impact to behavior and socio-economic indicators, while for relation between attribute there are no significant relation. Result for waste bank actor detailed, total family member give significant impact to 5 from 30 questions, education level and monthly revenue attribute each give significant impact to 1 question, while for relation between attribute there are no significant relation. Based on SWOT analysis waste bank system need to be maintained to obtained optimum opportunities and aggressive maintenance of the waste bank management. The strategy recommendation given is to capture the opportunities that exist while improving organizational performance of the waste bank to obtain optimum results for municipal waste management system. Government should have an assessment program with a reward for waste bank community with the best management from every aspect. Therefore competition emphasized in every waste bank to be a better community-based waste. Strengthening the waste bank’s human resources also have important role to improve the innovation of waste bank management.
 A. Minelgaite, G. Liobikiene. Waste Problem in European Union and its Influence on Waste Management Behaviours. Science of Total Environment 667, page 86-93. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.313
 D. Wulandari, S. H. Utomo, B. S. Narmaditya. Waste Bank: Waste Management Model in Improving Local Economy. International Journal for Energy Economics and Policy 7 (3), 36-41. 2017. ISSN: 2146-4553
 H. D. Purba, C. Meidiana, D. W. Adrianto. Waste Management Scenario through Community Based Waste Bank: A Case Study of Kepanjen District, Malang Regency, Indonesia. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 5, No. 2. April 2014. DOI: 10.7763/IJESD.2014.V5.480
 D. R. Wijayanti, S. Suryani. Waste Bank as Community-based Environmental Governance: A Lesson Learned from Surabaya. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 184, page 171-179. 2015. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.05.077.
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Within the R&D project MaReK (Marker based sorting and recycling system for plastic packaging) the technology Tracer-Based-Sorting (TBS) is further developed and its sustainability is evaluated in a consortium of research institutes and companies (see www.hs-pforzheim.de/MaReK )
How does TBS work? Materials are marked with fluorescent tracers by introducing them in very low concentrations in order to separate them from the waste stream for recycling later. This is especially interesting for materials which otherwise could not be separated by their intrinsic differences in properties. With the help of these fluorescent tracers, which can be quickly optically differentiated, a reliable and efficient sorting process can be implemented leading to recyclates with a high purity. This makes it superior to the nowadays existing sorting according to intrinsic material properties. It thus provides important advantages that are decisive for a circular economy – with a potentially high positive sustainability impact (Woidasky et al. 2017).
With the new TBS sorting process, all plastic packaging could be reliably and efficiently sorted according to application, specification, brands, etc., thus enabling the production of far more competitive recyclates with the required quality. This would also make a valuable contribution to address the global “plastic litter” problem.
TBS enables a variety of applications in the recycling industry to sort a material from the waste stream. It can be used to target waste fractions containing of materials that are of particular interest for economic, technical or ecological reasons (positive sorting) or the separation of undesirable impurities that hinder further recycling of the waste stream (negative sorting).
Various possible TBS applications for the German market have already been discussed within stakeholder workshops and their sustainability have been evaluated, cf. (Gasde et al. 2019).
Within the project MaReK, an open innovation competition is initiated to identify and evaluate possible further applications for TBS outside Germany in order to increase the range of applications of the process (broad effect) and to identify further potential transfer approaches and thus also market opportunities. The target group are potential users from the technical field or sustainability experts who can give input about relevant sustainability issues which TBS could address.
This presentation is therefore dedicated
a) to present TBS and some recent results regarding sustainability assessment
b) to introduce the concept of Open Innovation (OI)
c) to ask for contributions of the experts gathered at LCIC2020: We will ask for suggestions regarding the use of TBS and sustainability aspects which should be taken into account. These input will be collected electronically.
d) to invite further interested members of the LCIC2020 community to get deeper insights within the consecutive workshop on OI. Within this workshop the participants will discuss and evaluate the collected contributions of the LCIC2020 community.
Gasde, J.; Preiss, P.; Lang-Koetz, C. (2019): Integrated Innovation and Sustainability Analysis in collaborative R&D projects. The ISPIM Innovation Conference – Celebrating Innovation: 500 Years Since daVinci, Florence, Italy on 16-19 June 2019.
Woidasky, J.; Lang-Koetz, C.; Heyde, M.; Wiethoff, S.; Sander, I.; Schau, A.; Moesslein, J.; Fahr, M.; Richards, B.; Turshatov, A.; Sorg, F. (2018): Tracer Based Sorting – Innovative Sorting Options for Post Consumer Products. In: Roland Pomberger et al. (eds.): Recy&DepoTech 2018. Proceedings for the 14. Recy&DepoTech Conference, Montanuniversität Leoben, Österreich, 7.-9.11.2018. pp. 105 -110. ISBN 978-3-200-05874-3.